Pathological features of West Nile and Usutu virus natural infections in wild and domestic animals and in humans: A comparative review
Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are emerging pathogens with zoonotic potential. Due to the recent climate and environmental changes, they are spreading across Europe, becoming a major threat for public and veterinary health. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are arboviruses that are responsible for multiple disease outbreaks in different species of birds, reptiles, and mammals, including humans. This review reports and compares the clinical signs as well as the gross and microscopic pathological features during natural infection with WNV and USUV in wild and domestic animals, as well as in humans. The main objective of this comparative review is to delineate the common features and the specific differences that characterize WNV- and USUV-induced diseases in each group of species and to highlight the main gaps in knowledge that could provide insight for further investigation on the pathogenesis and neurovirulence of these viruses.
Date: July 6, 2023