Virus


Virus (general)

Research directed at all the arboviruses in the One Health PACT project or emerging arboviruses in general (Surveillance, infectious disease management, preparedness and response etc.).

6. Chiara de Bellegarde: Human samples will be tested for all arboviruses taking into account visited areas and reported outbreaks in travel destination.


7. Ayat Abourashed: I will work on some virus surveillance systems to combine with Mosquito Alert.


9. Mariken de Wit: All my objectives focus on arboviruses.


14/24. Jurgen Moonen: I will probably look at multiple different viruses that are able to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus..


14/24. Tom van der Most: This project will analyse the Dutch Culex pipiens samples for the presence of all viruses deemed relevant within the One Health pact.


17. Imke Visser: We will carry out experiments on the priority arboviruses as decided by the OHPACT consortium. Currently the main viruses we wish to study are highlighted below.


18. Eleanor Marshall: We will carry out experiments on the priority arboviruses as decided by the OHPACT consortium. Currently the main viruses we wish to study are highlighted below.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Will be working with live viruses and infectious clones both in vitro and in vivo.


21. Pauline de Best: My project will focus on preparedness and control for arboviruses in general.

Chikungunya Virus

Specific research directed at Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

17. Imke Visser: I want to investigate whether saliva from mosquito species in Northern Europe / the Netherlands influences the transmission of CHIKV to a vertebrate host.


18. Eleanor Marshall: Chikungunya virus, whilst most often associated with severe arthralgia, has been known to cause neurological disease. The choroid plexus appears to be an important interface for neuroinvasion by this virus, which is interesting due to the general lack of literature regarding this route.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Possibly – scope could encompass working with live virus (and possibly infectious clones) both in vitro and in vivo, as comparison for USUV and cross-reactivity studies.


26. Joyce van Bree: Yes. This is an alphavirus and these viruses do not show suppression of CpG and UpA dinucleotides. Therefore, we want to investigate how alphaviruses cope with an anti-viral system which recognizes these dinucleotides.

Dengue Fever Virus

Specific research directed at Dengue Virus (DENV) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Possibly – scope could encompass working with live virus (and possibly infectious clones) both in vitro and in vivo, as comparison for USUV and cross-reactivity studies.


26. Joyce van Bree: Potentially.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus

Specific research directed at Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

2. Nnomzie Atama: One of my target viruses.


8. Kiki Streng: Baseline seroprevalence will be established and response surveillance protocols will be developed.


9. Mariken de Wit: I might use JEV for obj 3 to look at the risk of it developing urban transmission cycles. I might also study JEV to assess the risk of it emerging in NL.


10. Afonso Dimas Martins: The models developed will have a primary focus on VBDs with enzootic spillover cycles (such as JEV).


13. Charlotte Linthout: Transmission, vector competence.


17. Imke Visser: As with WNV (minus the co-circulation). In addition, JEV transmission also occurs via the respiratory route (pigs), and thus I can use JEV as a model virus for an airborne-transmitted arbovirus.


18. Eleanor Marshall: Despite two vaccines currently in use, outbreaks of severe neurological disease caused by JEV continue to occur. A large amount of literature exists on JEV, however some routes of neuroinvasion have not been explorede.g. via the blood-CSF barrier.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Possibly – scope could encompass working with live virus (and possibly infectious clones) both in vitro and in vivo, as comparison for USUV and cross-reactivity studies.


26. Joyce van Bree: Potentially.

Mayaro Virus

Specific research directed at Mayaro Virus (MAYV) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

9. Mariken de Wit: I might use Mayaro virus for obj 3 to look at the risk of it developing urban transmission cycles. I might also study Mayaro virus to assess the risk of it emerging in NL.


13. Charlotte Linthout: Transmission, vector competence


17. Imke Visser: I want to investigate whether (saliva from) European mosquito species are able to transmit/potentiate MAYV to a vertebrate host.


18. Eleanor Marshall: Very little literature exists on the ability of Mayaro virus to invade the human CNS. There are therefore many questions to be answered regarding the potential of Mayaro virus to induce neurological disease, and a comparison to be made with related alphaviruses.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Possibly – scope could encompass working with live virus (and possibly infectious clones) both in vitro and in vivo, as comparison for USUV and cross-reactivity studies.

Rift Valley Fever Virus

Specific research directed at Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

8: Kiki Streng: One of the model viruses for developing surveillance and response protocols, and to model effects of changes in livestock farming in the future.


9. Mariken de Wit: I might use RVF virus for obj 3 to look at the risk of it developing urban transmission cycles. I might also study RVF virus to assess the risk of it emerging in NL.


13. Charlotte Linthout: Transmission, vector competence


18. Eleanor Marshall: In severe cases of RVFV, neurological disease does occur, in addition to the haemorrhagic presentations. Research regarding neuroinvasion of RVFV often focuses on the olfactory route of neuroinvasion due to the ability of the virus to be spread via aerosol, as well as via the bite of a mosquito. Further study into the impact on neuroinvasion of these differing routes must be done. Microhaemorrgaging and immune cell infiltration of the brain has also been reported, therefore haematogenous routes of neuroinvasion should be further investigated.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Possibly – scope could encompass working with live virus (and possibly infectious clones) both in vitro and in vivo, as comparison for USUV and cross-reactivity studies.

Sindbis Virus

Specific research directed at Sindbis Virus (SINV) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

2. Nnomzie Atama: One of my target viruses.


8. Kiki Streng: Baseline seroprevalence will be established and response surveillance protocols will be developed.


10. Afonso Dimas Martins: The models developed will have a primary focus on VBDs with enzootic spillover cycles (such as SINV).


13. Charlotte Linthout: Transmission, vector competence.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Possibly – scope could encompass working with live virus (and possibly infectious clones) both in vitro and in vivo, as comparison for USUV and cross-reactivity studies.

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

Specific research directed at Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus (TBE) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: Ticks are (and have been) collected from wild birds for a long time, and will be analysed to test for TBEV.


8. Kiki Streng: Baseline seroprevalence will be established and response surveillance protocols will be developed.


17. Imke Visser: The geographical range of tick species is expanding, and oral infection of TBEV through the consumption of infected raw milk is occurring in Europe.


18. Eleanor Marshall: Occurrence of disease induced by TBEV is increasing due to the explosion of tick populations and increase in geographical range of these vectors. Interestingly, there are large differences in occurrence and severity of neurological disease between the three subtypes,with little knowledge as to the reason for this difference. In addition, the ability of this virus to infect via the alimentary route adds another layer of interest due to the recently discovered gut-brain neural circuit.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Possibly – scope could encompass working with live virus (and possibly infectious clones) both in vitro and in vivo, as comparison for USUV and cross-reactivity studies.

Usutu Virus

Specific research directed at Usutu Virus (USUV) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

2. Nnomzie Atama: One of my target viruses.


3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: Focus of my PhD using the arbovirus surveillance data we already collected will be the case of USUV in wild birds. Population level effects will be looked into by integrated population modelling and other approaches to estimating disease-related mortality and possibly, effects on bird fecundity.


4. Jurrian van Irsel: My main focus will be on Usutu virus and its impact on populations.


8. Kiki Streng: Baseline seroprevalence will be established and response surveillance protocols will be developed.


9. Mariken de Wit: I will focus in Usutu for obj 1 where I reconstruct outbreaks of the previous years in NL.


10. Afonso Dimas Martins: The models developed will have a primary focus on VBDs with enzootic spillover cycles (such as USUV).


13. Charlotte Linthout: Transmission, vector competence.


14/24. Tom van der Most: Presence of USUV in Dutch Culex pipiens will be determined in this project. USUV will also be used as a model arbovirus when looking at the anti-viral immune response and the effect of insect-specific viruses on vector competence.


16. Gianfilippo Agliani: The main aim of the project is to develop an animal model of Usutu virus infection to deeper characterize the pathogenesis of the disease.


17. Imke Visser: As with WNV.


18. Eleanor Marshall: Usutu is a newly emerging virus which has been shown to induce neurological disease in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Due to the low number of human cases, little research has been carried out on this virus so there is much to research.


19. Tessa Nelemans: The main focus on this project will be on WNV and USUV.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Will be working with live virus and possibly infectious clones both in vitro and in vivo, as well as mutant constructs.


26. Joyce van Bree: Yes! Also because biosafety is lower and we can let master students do experiments using this model organism.

West Nile virus

Specific research directed at West Nile Virus (WNV) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

1. Rody Blom: My research is currently focused primarily on Culex pipiens as a result of the recent WNV findings.


2. Nnomzie Atama: One of my target viruses.


3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: When WNV will show up, this can be detected in the arbovirus surveillance that is already up and running for wild birds. When WNV is first detected, sampling strategies may be adapted to suit our needs and that of the consortium as a whole.


4. Jurrian van Irsel: As WNV may occurs in the NL in coming years, my analysis may be extended to this virus as well. In my fieldwork blood analyses will include testing for Usutu and WNV presence.


5. Marianne Rijtma: My thesis focuses on predicting WNV risk.


8. Kiki Streng: Baseline seroprevalence will be established and response surveillance protocols will be developed.


9. Mariken de Wit: I might focus on WNV for obj 2 and 4 and assess the risk of WNV emerging in NL.


10. Afonso Dimas Martins: The models developed will have a primary focus on VBDs with enzootic spillover cycles (such as WNV).


13. Charlotte Linthout: Transmission, vector competence.


14/24. Tom van der Most: Presence of WNV in Dutch Culex pipiens will be determined in this project. WNV will also be used as a model arbovirus when looking at the anti-viral immune response and the effect of insect-specific viruses on vector competence.


16. Gianfilippo Agliani: We hope to develop a model that could be applicable also to the study of West Nile virus pathogenesis.


17. Imke Visser: Co-circulating with USUV, circulating in Europe and recently detected the Netherlands. WNV infection is enhanced when co-inoculated with saliva from North-American mosquito species, but not much is known about the effect of European mosquito species saliva on the pathogenesis of European WNV isolates in the vertebrate host.


18. Eleanor Marshall: A well-studied virus with regards to neuroinvasion, due to the large burden of neurological disease it causes in humans, but many questions remain. This virus co-circulates with Usutu and the geographical range is ever expanding. WNV has been implicated in using both haematogenous and transneural routes of neuroinvasion, therefore the spatio-temporal kinetics of this multipronged neuroinvasive strategy would be especially interesting to investigate.


19. Tessa Nelemans: The main focus on this project will be on WNV and USUV.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Will be working with live virus (and possibly infectious clones) both in vitro and in vivo, as comparison for USUV and cross-reactivity studies.


26. Joyce van Bree: Planning to make WNV CpG/UpA high mutants.

Yellow Fever Virus

Specific research directed at Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Possibly – scope could encompass working with live virus (and possibly infectious clones) both in vitro and in vivo, as comparison for USUV and cross-reactivity studies.

Zika Virus

Specific research directed at Zika Virus (ZIKV) (Transmission, vector competence, host competence, virus characteristics, vaccine etc.).

20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Immunity towards all virus strains relevant for the OHP will be of interest for my project.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Possibly – scope could encompass working with live virus (and possibly infectious clones) both in vitro and in vivo, as comparison for USUV and cross-reactivity studies.


26. Joyce van Bree: Yes we have the ZIKV mutants already in the lab present and some pilot studies are performed with these CpG/UpA mutants.

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One Health PACT with project number 109986 is (partly) financed by the Dutch Research Council (NWO).