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Vector

an organism, typically a biting insect or tick, that transmits a disease or parasite from one animal to another

Vector abundance

Relative degree of plentifulness of the vector(s).

1. Rody Blom: I will look at the spread and abundance of mosquito species.


5. Marianne Rijtma: I will use data on mosquito abundance in my WNV risk map.


7. Ayat Abourashed: I will use the data collected via Mosquito Alert to illustrate vector abundances in the Netherlands and Spain.


8. Kiki Streng: Will be determined at several livestock barns of different animal species (to compare outside and inside abundance of mosquitoes).


9. Mariken de Wit: I will include this in my models for all objectives. It will be used for spatial prediction.


11. Clara Delecroix: If data is available about vector abundance, it can be used to calibrate the model.


15. Sam Boerlijst: Experiments on population dynamics.


(27). Martha Dellar: Working with PhD12 to build mosquito model.

Vector movement patterns: migration

A description of a vector’s movement or transportation in space and time between countries.

6. Chiara de Bellegarde: Mosquito dispersal by car might be investigated in order to assess the risk of vector importation through travels in Europe.


9. Mariken de Wit: I will include this in my models for all objectives. It plays a role in importation risk of mosquitoes and viruses.


11. Clara Delecroix: We will try to use spatial explicit models in our analyses.


17. Imke visser: If a certain mosquito species enters Europe/the Netherlands it is interesting for my project to obtain some saliva from these species (dependent on the mosquito trappers, WUR?).


21. Pauline de Best: Outcomes might be used in intervention / guideline development.


(27). Martha Dellar: Working with PhD12 to build mosquito model. Will also look at travel of mosquitoes into the Netherlands as part of my work on future scenarios.

Vector movement patterns dispersal

A description of a vector’s movement in space and time within a country.

9. Mariken de Wit: I will include this in my models for all objectives. It provides info about potential spatial spread.


11. Clara Delecroix: We will try to use spatial explicit models in our analyses.


21. Pauline de Best: Outcomes might be used in intervention / guideline development.


(27). Martha Dellar: Working with PhD12 to build mosquito model. This will potentially include dispersal.

Habitat suitability

The capacity of a given habitat to support a selected species.

1. Rody Blom: I will include certain habitat characteristics in my statistical models.


9. Mariken de Wit: I will use this implicitly to understand the risk of new species getting established in NL.


15. Sam Boerlijst: Experiments on population dynamics.


21. Pauline de Best: Outcomes might be used in intervention / guideline development.


(27). Martha Dellar: Working with PhD12 to build mosquito model. This will include habitat types.

Vector immune response

The reaction of the vector’s immune system upon exposure to a specific pathogen.

9. Mariken de Wit: This will be included in models if it affects transmission probability from vector to host and duration of infectiousness.


13. Charlotte Linthout: If we discover differences in vector competence in the different biotypes of the Culex pipiens complex, this could be because of difference in immune response, so this will be investigated.


14/24. Jurgen Moonen: This is the core topic of my PhD.


14/24. Tom van der Most: Vector immune response will be tested on laboratory-held Culex pipiens and interventions in the immune signaling pathways will be performed to investigate their role in the immune response.


26. Joyce van Bree: What mosquito proteins bind CpG and UpA dinucleotides and what are their role during infection (can either be proviral or antiviral).

Vector susceptibility

The ease with which a vector can become infected by a specific pathogen / the vulnerability of a vector to infection with a specific pathogen.

9. Mariken de Wit: This will be included in models as transmission probability from host to vector.


11. Clara Delecroix: This is an important parameter to take into account in the models.


13. Charlotte Linthout: During the vector competence studies, also the infection rate of the mosquitoes will be investigated. The question is; if we give them an infected blood meal, is the mosquito then also infected?


14/24. Jurgen Moonen: Vector susceptibility is, in addition to vector immunity, important for my project.


14/24. Tom van der Most: Vector susceptibility/Vector competence studies will be performed in the acquirement of an insect-specific virus from Dutch Culex pipiens to see potential for intervention.


17. Imke Visser: In my project I want to see whether a mosquito can become infected by biting an infected vertebrate (e.g. mouse) displaying different levels of viremia.

Vector host-preference

The extent to which a particular host species is used (or, conversely, avoided) by a population or taxon of parasites or vectors.

3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: Mosquito preferences for avian hosts will be quantified in experimental settings to identify whether vector population and host specific patterns in biting rate can be expected to play a role in the wild.


9. Mariken de Wit: This will be incorporated into models as host-specific biting rates.


10. Afonso Dimas Martins: The impact of some mosquito behaviors, such as host-preference, on R0, will be studied.


11. Clara Delecroix: This is an important parameter to take into account in the models.


21. Pauline de Best: Outcomes might be used in intervention / guideline development.


4. Jurrian van Irsel: I partly use this as I will determine the host susceptibility based on morphological traits that may relate to mosquito biting preference.

Vector competence

The ability of a vector to transmit a disease (The capacity of arthropods to orally acquire, maintain and transmit pathogens to a next vertebrate host is defined as vector competence.

9. Mariken de Wit: This will be included as part of the transmission probability from vector to host.


11. Clara Delecroix: This is an important parameter to take into account in the models.


13. Charlotte Linthout: Different mosquito species will be given an infected bloodmeal and after 14 days under different (climate) conditions, the presence of this virus will be investigated in the saliva of the mosquito.


14/24. Jurgen Moonen: Vector competence is, in addition to vector immunity, important for my project.


14/24. Tom van der Most: Vector susceptibility/Vector competence studies will be performed in the acquirement of an insect-specific virus from Dutch Culex pipiens to see potential for intervention.


17. Imke Visser: When virus is detected in the vector saliva (= labelled as competent vector) I will continue the vector competence research by determining whether the vector can indeed transmit the virus to a vertebrate host (using in vivo experiments).


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Could be interesting in collaboration with others to look at vector competence of mutated clones.

Host

An animal (incl human) that is capable of being infected with and therefore giving sustenance to, an infectious agent

Host abundance

Relative degree of plentifulness of host(s).

1. Rody Blom: I would like to look into plasticity in host preferences as a consequence of host availability. Not sure whether this will be feasible.


3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: Host abundance will be modelled in integrated population models during the Usutu outbreak in the Netherlands. Simulations may be used to explore scenarios.


4. Jurrian van Irsel: I will analyze the abundances of birds using Sovon data.


5. Marianne Rijtma: I will use data on bird abundance in my WNV risk map.


8. Kiki Streng: Overview of relevant domestic (and some wild) host species will be developed.


9. Mariken de Wit: I will include this in my models for all objectives. It will be used for spatial predictions.


11. Clara Delecroix: If data is available about host abundance, it can be used to calibrate the model.


(27). Martha Dellar: Will look at how this is likely to change in the future.

Host movement patterns

A description of a host’s movement in space and time (e.g. annual migration, resting/moving).

3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: Avian movements will be quantified from existent ringing data sets, as well as from GPS logger data on wild birds in urban and natural habitat types.


5. Marianne Rijtma: I will use data on bird migration in my WNV risk map.


6. Chiara de Bellegarde: I will be using information on travel data to assess the risk of travel-related arbovirus infections.


9. Mariken de Wit: I will include this in my models for all objectives. It plays a role in importation risk and spatial spread of viruses.


11. Clara Delecroix: This is an important aspect to take into account in the models.


21. Pauline de Best: Outcomes might be used in intervention / guideline development.


(27). Martha Dellar: Will look at how this is likely to change in the future.

Host immune response

The reaction of the host’s immune system upon exposure to a specific pathogen.

5. Marianne Rijtma: I will look at the innate immune antiviral response of birds and compare between species.


9. Mariken de Wit: This will be included in models if it affects transmission probability from host to vector and duration of infectiousness.


16. Gianfilippo Agliani: I will perform characterization of immune response in tissues examined.


17. Imke Visser: I will look into the local (skin) as well as systemic host immune response upon viral infection with or without vector saliva.


18. Eleanor Marshall: The immune response in the brain is of interest to my project as this is thought to be a fine balance between control of infection and pathology.


19. Tessa Nelemans: Our main aim is to define the host innate immune response (in e.g. the skin) to arbovirus infection.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: I will mainly study the humoral immune response of arbovirus vaccinees and infected individuals. The interaction of antibodies and antibody-antigen complexes with other immune cells could be also studied.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Comparing the innate immune response of mutated proteins and clones, and of potential vaccine candidates.


26. Joyce van Bree: Which host proteins bind CpG/UpA dinucleotides and what are their role during infection (proviral or antiviral).

Host susceptibility

The ease with which a host can become infected by a specific pathogen / the vulnerability of a host to infection with a specific pathogen.

2. Nnomzie Atama: Part of our pathogenicity study.


3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: Susceptibility will be looked at in an integrated modelling approach of infection histories from wild avian hosts during and after an USUV outbreak. Individual-level predictors (e.g. sex and age) will be taken into account to explain these patterns.


4. Jurrian van Irsel: I use this as I will determine the host susceptibility based on literature and outcomes of population trend analyses.


8. Kiki Streng: This will be taken into account to estimate the impact of introduction or outbreak of a certain arbovirus in the Netherlands.


9. Mariken de Wit: This will be included in models as transmission probability from vector to host.


11. Clara Delecroix: This is an important parameter to take into account in the models.


16. Gianfilippo Agliani: I will try to asses susceptibility of multiple experimentally infected bird species.


17. Imke Visser: I am going to investigate whether certain (human, bird) skin cells (in vitro) as well as whole vertebrates (in vivo) are susceptible to viral infection and whether the susceptibility and pathogenesis is influenced by vector saliva.


18. Eleanor Marshall: Determination of the susceptibility of different cells within the host to infection is essential to aid in identification of neuroinvasive routes utilized by arboviruses.


19. Tessa Nelemans: We will introduce mutations in the viral genome that will block its immune evasion activity and will attenuate the virus. We will assess the effect of these mutations on host susceptibility.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: The effect of pre-existing antibodies on arbovirus susceptibility is a primary objective.

Host seroprevalence

The presence of a particular element (such as antibodies) in blood serum.

2. Nnomzie Atama: Part of my bird and wild mammal surveillance.


3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: Survival and antibody dynamics will be studied in the context of capture-mark recapture studies of wild birds on ringing sites to build statistical models that allow multiple sources of non-randomly missing data and uncertainty to be taken into account in inference of demographic and epidemiological parameters.


6. Chiara de Bellegarde: Human serum samples will be tested to investigate seropositivity for vector-borne diseases in the Netherlands and after travelling in Europe.


8. Kiki Streng: Baseline seroprevalence of several arboviruses will be determined in multiple animal species.


9. Mariken de Wit: This can be used to fit model predictions to observed data or validate predictions.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: We will use serological tools to define the immunological background of study subjects.


21. Pauline de Best: Outcomes might be used in intervention / guideline development.

Environmental factors

the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors (such as climate, soil, and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival

Water

Any type of water body such as lakes, puddles, rivers.

4. Jurrian van Irsel: Included in my study in the occurrence maps of Usutu in NL and also in the modelling of the species distribution. Mainly as a variable to mask areas unsuitable for possible habitat. No further ideas are present using water as environmental factor thus far.


13. Charlotte Linthout: I will test the different stress factors on the larval stages and will then use the adults from these larvae to test vector competence. In that sense I will be working with different water environments (high and low eutrophication).


15. Sam Boerlijst: Experiments on population dynamics under stress.


21. Pauline de Best: Outcomes might be used in intervention / guideline development.


(27). Martha Dellar: Will look at how this is likely to change in the future. Including where water bodies are, their size and water quality.

Climate

The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.

1. Rody Blom: I will include climate effects in my statistical models.


3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: Prevalences in sub-Saharan migratory birds caught in the Netherlands will be linked to annual variation in precipitation on the wintering grounds, and possibly weather conditions along the migratory flyway will be taken into account when quantifying timing of arrival on the breeding grounds.


4. Jurrian van Irsel: Included in my study in the occurrence maps of Usutu in NL and also in the modelling of the species distribution. In particular monthly/daily temperature and precipitation.


5. Marianne Rijtma: I will include climate data in my WNV risk map as the host- and mosquito abundance as well as viral replication are weather dependent.


9. Mariken de Wit: Many transmission rate parameters are dependent on climate factors such as temperature and humidity.


11. Clara Delecroix: It could be interesting to include seasonality in the models.


13. Charlotte Linthout: I will expose infected mosquitoes to different fluctuating and constant temperatures (current and future scenario’s).


15. Sam Boerlijst: Experiments on population dynamics under stress.


21. Pauline de Best: Outcomes might be used in intervention / guideline development.


(27). Martha Dellar: Will look at how this is likely to change in the future.

Habitat types

The types of natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism.

1. Rody Blom: Habitat types will be included in the statistical models. Probably derived from the CORINE-database.


3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: Urban and natural habitat types will be compared in prevalences, and movements within and between these habitat types by key avian hosts will be characterized.


4. Jurrian van Irsel: Included in my study in the occurrence maps of Usutu in NL and also in the modelling of the species distribution.


5. Marianne Rijtma: I will link species distribution to landcover data.


15. Sam Boerlijst: Experiments on population dynamics under stress.


21. Pauline de Best: Outcomes might be used in intervention / guideline development.


(27). Martha Dellar: Will look at how land use and water bodies will change in the future.

Pollution

The presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects.

15. Sam Boerlijst: Experiments on population dynamics under stress.


21. Pauline de Best: Outcomes might be used in intervention / guideline development.


(27). Martha Dellar: Will look at how this is likely to change in the future.

Virus

an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy, and is able to multiply only within the living cells of a host

Pathogenicity

Quality of disease induction (vs. Virulence: ability of an infectious agent to cause disease, in a particular host, in terms of severity).

4. Jurrian van Irsel: Partly involved in my project. I will focus on the impact of Usutu virus on birds.


16. Gianfilippo Agliani: I will study the pathogenicity of the virus in experimentally infected birds and mice.


17. Imke Visser: I am going to investigate whether certain (human, bird) skin cells (in vitro) as well as whole vertebrates (in vivo) are susceptible to viral infection and whether the susceptibility and pathogenesis is influenced by vector saliva.


18. Eleanor Marshall: My project is interested in the differences in the ability of a virus to induce disease in the brain, and what may cause this difference, as it could aid in elucidation of neuroinvasive mechanisms and defences.


19. Tessa Nelemans: We will introduce mutations in the viral genome that will block its immune evasion activity and will attenuate the virus. The pathogenicity of attenuated viruses will be tested in the ex vivo model and in vivo (in collaboration with track 25).


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: We study antibody responses as they are a main component of the correlate of immune protection and immunopathogenesis.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Compare this for different mutant proteins, clones and vaccine candidates in vitro and in vivo.

Virus-mosquito interaction

The influence a virus can have on a mosquito and vice versa.

9. Mariken de Wit: I will include this if an infection affects mosquito parameters such as mortality rate, movement.


13. Charlotte Linthout: Investigate how long it takes for a virus to develop in the mosquito.


14/24. Jurgen Moonen: I will look into the immune response of the mosquito against various viruses.


14/24. Tom van der Most: The impact of viruses (both arboviruses and insect-specific viruses) on the mosquito immune response will be analysed in laboratory-held Culex pipiens colony.

Virus-host interaction

The mechanism of sustainment of a virus within the host organisms on a molecular, cellular or population level.

3. Tjomme van Mastrigt: Population-level effects and individual-level predictors of disease related mortality and infection with USUV will be studied using existent data sets and through collaborations.


4. Jurrian van Irsel: I will determine the impact of Usutu virus on avian population trends. This does not involve laboratory experimental studies.


9. Mariken de Wit: I will include this if an infection affects mosquito parameters such as mortality rate, movement.


16. Gianfilippo Agliani: I will try to characterize virus-host interaction in experimentally infected birds and mice and in ex-vivo studies.


17. Imke Visser: I will look into the local (skin) as well as systemic host immune response upon viral infection with or without vector saliva.


18. Eleanor Marshall: I will look into the interaction of virus with the haematogenous and transneural host interfaces of neuroinvasion.


19. Tessa Nelemans: We will assess the interaction of viral proteins with host factors to uncover the molecular mechanism of the viral immune evasion activity.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: We study antibody responses as they are a main component of the correlate of immune protection and immunopathogenesis.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Compare this for different mutant proteins, clones and vaccine candidates in vitro and in vivo.

Mutations

The feature of viruses to perform viral genetic change in their own genome.

18. Eleanor Marshall: Using the models developed in this project, we hope to be able to identify mutations that decrease the ability of a virus to invade the brain to aid in vaccine development and testing. Identification of mutations that increase this ability would also be of interest.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Will be creating mutant expression constructs for the virus proteins, and mutated infectious clones with the goal of attenuation. These will be based on variants found in the field and rational design.


26. Joyce van Bree: Increasing or suppressing certain dinucleotide patterns

Interventions

the act of intervening with the intent of modifying the disease outbreak outcome

Vaccines

An overview and critical analysis of what has been published on a topic by accredited researchers.

17. Imke Visser: Using our transmission model (host + mosquito bite), a potential vaccine can be tested: vaccinating mice to subsequently infect (challenge) with a wildtype virus transmitted by a vector instead of a needle. This represents the most natural way of how people can become infected by an arthropod-borne virus.


18. Eleanor Marshall: As above, we hope to use the models developed in this project to facilitate vaccine development.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: The B-cell platform that we develop in my project is very well suited to study vaccine efficacy and safety.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Will use attenuation information in a range of vaccine platforms including MLV and YF17D Chimera. For USUV, possibly other viruses, and to look at cross reactivity.


26. Joyce van Bree: Can we implement these genomic features attenuating a virus into the genomes of pathogenic MBVs. These mutant viruses could be used as live-attenuated vaccines.

Preparedness

The state of readiness for future disease outbreaks.

6. Chiara de Bellegarde: Data collected on vector-borne diseases exposure and arbovirus importation through infectious travellers will contribute to develop a preparedness plan for early warning and targeted surveillance.


17. Imke Visser: When an invasive mosquito species emerges in Europe / the Netherlands, we can combine (saliva from) these mosquito species with a range of viruses (either present or not yet present in Europe) and infect our mouse model to determine whether a potential disease outbreak could occur.


18. Eleanor Marshall: The in vitro models we will develop will be able to be used for rapid identification of novel and emerging neuroinvasive viruses.


21. Pauline de Best: My project will look at interventions and guidelines for the prevention of arboviruses.


25. Jo Duyvestyn: Creation of vaccine candidates, possibly design of novel platforms, and maybe asking how broadly does attenuation information apply to other potentially emerging flaviviruses, or what their cross reactivity looks like?


26. Joyce van Bree: If indeed CpG/UpA-high viral mutants can protect vertebrates after challenging them with a wt virus, we could implement this for more RNA viruses (also SARS-CoV-2).

Improved surveillance (/response surveillance)

An improved method for the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data essential to planning, implementation, and evaluation of public/animal/ecological health practice.

6. Chiara de Bellegarde: I will develop a plan in order to allow targeted human surveillance in case of arbovirus circulation in the Netherlands.


7. Ayat Abourashed: I will use Mosquito Alert as a surveillance system and will evaluate the effectiveness of citizen science to collect surveillance data.


8. Kiki Streng: Response surveillance strategies will be developed which can be implemented at high-risk areas or in outbreak situations.


9. Mariken de Wit: For my 4th objective I aim to develop an improved sampling/surveillance strategy based on outputs from the simulation model I made.


11. Clara Delecroix: Early warning indicators can be used as a signal to detect the start of an outbreak.


18. Eleanor Marshall: As above, in vitro models also be used for surveillance purposes.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Custom and multiplex serological assays developed in my project may be implemented for epidemiological and surveillance studies.


21. Pauline de Best: My project will look at interventions and guidelines for the prevention of arboviruses, surveillance is a part of this.

Diagnostics

Development of new/innovative diagnostic methods and tests.

8. Kiki Streng: Possibly new diagnostic methods will be developed for improving screening and surveillance strategies for multiple arboviruses in mammals.


17. Imke Visser: Samples from in vivo experiments can be used for validation of diagnostic assays.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Custom and multiplex serological assays developed in my project may be implemented in diagnostics.

Other interventions

14/24. Tom van der Most: In the mapping of the virome for Dutch Culex pipiens, we hope to acquire an insect-specific virus that can be used to restrict vector competence of arboviruses.


17. Imke Visser: As for vaccines (see above), but with antivirals and neutralizing antibodies.


20. Muriel Aguilar Bretones: Potentially, antibodies with therapeutic potential will be identified in our studies.


21. Pauline de Best: New interventions will be developed as part of my project.

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One Health PACT with project number 109986 is (partly) financed by the Dutch Research Council (NWO).